• Fiqh Frågor från Sayyid Fadhallah

    Was Eve created from the rib of Adam?
    Q: Based on the following Ayah: ”That He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them ”(30:21) was Eve actually created from the rib of Adam?
    A: This does not indicate that she was born from his rib; but rather, from the same source (clay), as mentioned in some narrations. Perhaps what is meant by the term ”from among yourselves” is the species to which they belong; i.e. not belonging to the species of animals or jinns.
    The Prayer of the sick
    Q: Is praying not obligatory on sick people?
    A: Prayers are obligatory even on sick people, whilst taking into consideration what might harm the patient. For example, if he cannot prostrate, then he can pray the way he can.
    Every human being is pure
    Q: Are the People of the Book or the atheists who do not believe in Allah deemed impure; i.e. does the wetness coming from any of them turn someone impure?
    A: Every human being is pure, be he amongst the People of the Book or not. What is actually meant by the impurity of the atheist is the spiritual filthiness he embodies due to the lewdness of his belief, and not the materialistic impurity that transmits from one thing to another via wetness.
    The purity of animal leather
    Q: Is the leather imported from non-Muslim countries deemed pure? Should one wash his hand if he touches this leather with a wet hand?
    A: If there was not a high possibility that the leather imported from non-Muslim countries is from animals slaughtered according to the Islamic Shariah, then it is subjected to the rulings of dead animals; i.e. it is impure, and one cannot pray whilst having it on. Moreover, anything wet that could transmit wetness becomes impure if it touches this leather. However, if it was most probably taken from animals slaughtered according to the Islamic Shariah, then it is deemed pure and it is permissible to pray whilst having it on.
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    Q: Is it permissible to wear a pair of shoes made from the leather of an animal not slaughtered according to the Shariah?
    A: Yes, it is permissible, although it might be impure.
    God’s ability of creation
    Q: Is God capable of creating what is [logically] impossible for Him to create?
    A: It is not that difficult. A man, once, asked Imam As-Sadiq (a.s.) if his God is capable of placing the entire world (meaning the universe) in an egg, without making the egg bigger in size and making the world smaller in size, and the Imam (a.s.) answered that indeed He is capable of doing so, but incapability here lies in the creature and not the Creator. What Imam As-Sadiq (a.s.) meant was that the common sense necessitates a state of proportionality between the size of the bowl and what could be placed in it; thus, since the egg is too small for the world to fit in, then the reason behind that is the small size of the egg and not the incapability of Allah, the Most High, of doing so.
    Since Allah has power over all things, there is nothing He cannot create that could make us wonder if our Lord is capable of creating what is [logically] impossible for Him to create. There is no such thing as ”impossible” for Allah. He can create and generate anything that could come to people’s minds, as long as it is logic and rational, or else, is it acceptable to ask Allah, the Most High, if He is capable of making Himself perish?! In this case, the question in itself is illogical and irrational, as Divine Entity, by definition, does not perish. Actually, we, as humans, are only capable of doing rational and logical acts, regardless of the power and ability we possess. In other words, man is capable of drinking just as he is capable of not drinking, but he cannot do both actions at the same time; i.e. to drink and not to drink, not because he is incapable of doing that, but because the act itself is impossible, for nothing could happen and not happen in the same moment.
    the concept of exaggeration
    Q: What is the concept of exaggeration, especially that there is some sort of misunderstanding of certain concepts, and some consider that the Imams (a.s.) are capable of creating and providing sustenance?
    A: Exaggeration refers to the state where people lift the state of humanity from the infallibles and attribute some characteristics to them, which belong neither to any form of miracles nor to certain honors Allah had privileged them with, especially when such act is taken too far by attributing Divine traits to them
    Can dreams be interpreted?
    Q: Do all our dreams have certain interpretations or they are merely reflections of the subconscious mind?
    A: Most dreams are reflections of the subconscious mind, yet some of them might be true, but we do not possess the means to confirm that. Actually, interpreting dreams does not have fixed religious rules; but rather, it is a mere personal judgment by the one interpreting the dream.
    The place of burial of Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.)
    Q: There exist three narrations on the place of burial of Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.): Ash-Sham, Egypt, and Al-Madina, what is the reason behind the multiplicity of these narrations, and why is Ash-Sham the place where she was most likely buried, although it is difficult to believe that she had returned to it?
    A: I, personally, do not encourage this kind of dispute. We are grateful to have the Maqam (shrine) anywhere, whether in Ash-Sham, Egypt, or Al-Madina…
    When we visit [the shrine of] Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.), we ought to experience her wide horizons; thus, it would not matter whether she was buried in Ash-Sham, Egypt or Al-Madina. Actually, these shrines are places where people remember and mention the Household Members (a.s.), through which people open up to Islam. Thus, we disapprove of doubting where the Household Members (a.s.) were buried.The aim behind the visit (Ziyarah) to the shrine of Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.) is not to sit and kiss the shrine; but rather, it is to picture Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.), and depict her greatness, heroism, and piety, as well as the elevated status she enjoyed and the courageous and bold stands she took for the sake of [establishing] the right and justice. This is what we ought to inspire from our visits to the shrines, so that they would not be mere traditions and customs. When we visit Sayyeda Zeinab (a.s.), we ought to look up to her mind, heroism and courage, and deduce lessons from them.
    Is Hellfire their eternal abode?
    Q: Is it true that the abode of all non-Muslims, including the Christians, will be Hellfire, although they are from the People of the Book?
    A: It is up to Allah to decide on who shall enter Heaven and who shall enter Hellfire, and the Holy Quran says that Allah surely does not forgive associating anything with Him, and besides that, he forgives whomsoever He pleases. It is incumbent upon every human being to look for the rightful religion amongst all the various religions and sects in the world, especially that there exist essential differences between Islam and Christianity. Islam calls for the belief that there is no God but Allah, the One and Only, Who could not be embodied in any way and Who begets not. However, Christianity calls for the belief that Allah is three Divine persons embodied in one entity, for He is the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and that Allah descended from his kingdom to earth personified in a human being to sacrifice himself for the sake of [forgiving] people’s sins. What view do you think is the right one?! This is where our duty steps in, as we ought to examine the issue thoroughly, so as to reach the ultimate truth, for if we do not, we would actually be falling behind and neglecting the duty of knowing God, the Creator.
    Obligation of offering prayers later
    Q: I do not perform my prayers constantly, do I have to perform all the prayers I have missed as a Qhada’, knowing that I am 24 years old now? Is there any solution other than actually praying them, such as paying atonement (Kaffara)?
    A: You ought to perform all the prayers you have missed, and the only atonement you can offer is praying for Allah’s forgiveness whilst performing the prayers you have missed… Allah is the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.
    Was evil created by Allah?
    Q: Was evil created by Allah, the Most High, the Most Exalted? If He did create evil, how could that be while He can never be the source of evil as mentioned in the Holy Quran?! And if He did not create evil, how can we interpret the following Ayah: ”Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn from the evil of what He has created”?
    A: Allah, the Most High, the Most Exalted, created the universe with all its norms, laws, and systems, which, all in all, is good for man. However, the nature of the limited matter necessitates having certain negative aspects, for there is no such thing as hundred percent good. On the contrary, there are certain negative aspects, which man calls evil, for they would seem harmful from a certain angle. However, this evil could be good when regarded from a different angle. Thus, scholars say that there exists no absolute evil; but rather, evil is relative, as this same evil could be regarded as evil from a certain angle, and good from another angle. 
    Advice for marriage
    Q: What would you advise a girl who is about to get married?
    A: We advise her to step into other people’s life in a calm and natural manner. She should not meddle in the affairs of her husband’s family that are of no concern to her, just as she should not let her parents meddle in her own affairs with her husband. Moreover, she ought to be committed to the line of faith and piety throughout her life. 
    Waking up for the night prayer
    Q: What can we do and what should we avoid in order to be able to wake up to perform the night prayer?
    A: In any act of worship, one ought to be determined to perform it regularly and commit himself to it. Sleeping early could help you in waking up to perform the night prayer.
    Separating religion from the state
    Q: Some non-religious groups, secularists, and modernists claim that the progress of the European, American and Asian nations was due to the fact that these nations rejected religions and held on to science. They also claim that there is no way for the Islamic and Arab nation to progress except by discarding religion and preventing it from intervening in the public affairs and limiting its practice to the places of worship and homes. Moreover, they allege that when Europe was subjected to the rule of religion and popes, it only reaped wars, backwardness and destruction. What do you say about that?
    A: This is not a new matter, for several intellectuals, influenced by the western culture, have called for adopting the slogan of separating religion from the state… Actually, such calls embody hoaxes and falsehood, for the experience that succeeds in a certain time and place does not mean that it will succeed in every time and place. Moreover, the western countries had called for the separation of a certain form of religious rule from the state and preventing its interference in the government, politics, and literary issues and the like; that form which was marked with the predominance of clerics and theologists (in the sense that was prevalent in the seventeenth century). That form of religious rule was what deterred any attempt for scientific progress and limited the freedom of scientific thought and other aspects, which were prevalent in the era of backwardness that Europe was plunged in throughout the three known centuries in its history… This does not apply at all to Islam which calls for adopting science, encouraging development and progress, and promoting openness on the other… Investing a certain dark historic era and trying to project it on all historic eras can never be accepted.
    Organ Donation
    Q: Is it permissible to donate one’s organs after death?
    A: Yes, it is permissible to donate body organs after death.
    Women’s veil in the Quran
    Q: Does the Quran contain proofs which state that is obligatory on women to wear the veil, as it is common nowadays?
    A: Allah says: ”O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments; this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful,” (33:57), and: ”And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers, so that you may be successful!” (24:31). This indicates that the woman ought to cover her body and feminine beauty features, except the face, palms and feet, as mentioned in the noble traditions. Moreover, there exists a consensus amongst Muslims on the obligation of wearing the veil, without imposing a certain form (code of dress), as long as it covers the body as mentioned.
    Are women deficient in mind, shares and faith?
    Q: Is it true that Imam Ali (a.s.) said: ”Women are deficient in mind, deficient in shares and deficient in faith”?
    A: We have reservations on the authenticity of these sayings attributed to the Commander of the faithful (a.s.), for not accepting the testimony of one woman has nothing to do with the mind and any deficiency in it; but rather, it is linked to the woman’s soft emotions. Had not accepting her testimony been related to a deficiency in her mind, them demanding the testimony of another woman does not complete her mind and render their joined minds one complete mind. As regards the deficiency in faith that is justified by their abstention from prayers and fasting during their menstrual period, it does not embody actually any deficiency for they leave these acts out of obedience to Allah Who ordained them to do so. As regards deficiency in their shares (inheritance), it is justified by the fact that women are not obliged to provide for their family financially; whereas, the man should.
    Do Hellfire and Heaven exist?
    Q: What is the proof on that Hellfire and Heaven do exist?
    A: After believing in Allah, the Most High, through the innate nature and reason, we believe in the Messenger of Allah, through the miracle he made and clear proofs. Consequently, one ought to believe in the unseen that Muhammad, As-Sadiq (the truthful) Al-Amin (the trustworthy) and the undoubtful Holy Book had talked about. Moreover, the Holy Quran and the other Heavenly books mention Heaven, Hellfire, Judgment, Angels and the Hereafter, knowing that the Last Day is necessary to realize Divine justice.
    Status of Imam Al-Hussein (a.s.)
    Q: We heard a religious scholar saying in a lecture: ”Visiting Imam Al-Hussein (a.s.) in his grave, is like visiting Allah in His Throne,” and some of us criticized that as it is impermissible to consider that Al-Hussein and Allah are of an equal status. Moreover, pointing out the possibility that man can visit Allah in His Throne contradicts with the Ja’afari jurisprudence which conclusively refuses to describe any of the traits of Divinity, but the lecturer said that it is used metaphorically. What is your opinion on that?
    A: The problem lies in the fact that the following Ayah: ” Say: ”Shall we tell you of those who lose most in respect of their deeds? Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life, while they thought that they were acquiring good by their works?” applies to such people.
    Do not go near prayer when you are intoxicated
    Q: Was this Holy Ayah: ”Do not go near prayer when you are intoxicated” directed to the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s.)?
    A: This can never be true, for Imam Ali (a.s.) is infallible and purified and cleansed from [committing] sins and wrongdoings. Moreover, we have discussed this narration, mentioned by certain scholars, in a scientific manner in our book ”Interpretations [inspired] from the Holy Quran” and we have revoked it.
    Chatting between opposite sexes
    Q: Am I allowed to chat with a male over the phone or via the internet?
    A: This is not forbidden if the lawful restraints are taken into consideration; however, it is preferred to avoid it, making sure not to be entrapped by certain arousing instants and sexual instincts that violate these restraints.
    Sufism and ‘Irfan
    Q: Those who follow Sufism do certain things that I do not like, such as mentioning the word ”breast” out loud, and shaking while they do the mentioning, in a collective manner. What do you say about that? What is your opinion on the ‘Irfan of the Household Members (a.s.)?
    A: It is impermissible to join such groups, and ‘Irfan (literally ”knowing”) signifies getting to know Allah, the Most High, and reach out to him through the Quran and the fixed noble Sunnah, through the traditions of the Prophet (p.) and the methodology of the Household Members (a.s.), by relying upon their jurisprudence and the authentic supplications and mentionings, and following their path of piety, devoutness and sublime Islamic morals.
    Dowry: Not a price for the woman
    Q: Some women say that the dowry paid for the wife degrades her, for she would be treated as a merchandise whose emotions are bought in exchange for a certain amount of money. What is your opinion on that?
    A: The dowry is not a price for the woman; but rather, it is, as Allah says, a gift, for He says: ”And give women their dowries as a free gift, but if they of themselves be pleased to give up to you a portion of it, then eat it with enjoyment and with wholesome result.” (04:04). The dowry could be a copy of the holy Quran or teaching one of its Surahs or the like, knowing that it is up to the couple to agree on it. 
    Sex education
    Q: Does Islam say that teenagers need to be sexually educated? Why?
    A: Indeed, they need that, yet to the extent that conforms to their age, and consequently their awareness and ability to understand the terms and expressions used in sex education. Thus, they ought to acquire such education in a scientific instructional manner, so as to educate them on sex in a way that removes any obscurity from their minds in what they need to know, ask about and experience as they reach puberty and sexual changes take place in their bodies. It is impermissible to instruct them using a pornographic sexual method, which arouses instincts and drives them to try these experiments, which leads to wrongdoings, deviation and vice, especially amidst this youth environment that is plunged with temptations and elements of arousement. 
    Muslims in western societies
    Q: What is the responsibility of the Muslim here in the West and what is the best and most important thing he ought to do?
    A: One of the most important things is that the Muslim ought to manifest a bright image of Islam, its morals, justice and good way of treating others. Moreover, a Muslim ought to preserve his religious commitment and avoid deviation and indulgence in corrupt ambiences, and to preserve the welfare of his family.
    Emulation in the doctrines
    Q: It is known that emulation should be done in issues related to the branches of the religion. However, in the issues of principles, such as unification, prophethood and the like, it is impermissible to emulate a certain religious authority; but rather, one ought to look into the matter thoroughly and get to know everything about it. Thus, we understand, that as a well-educated and conscious youth, we can express our opinions concerning many issues related to the principles of religion, such as unification, the Imamate, the virtues of the Imams and other Islamic issues. We also understand that we can revoke the opinions of our religious scholars on these issues, and even disagree with them according to our knowledge and views; thus, it is impermissible to follow a certain religious authority in such issues. Is that true? What is the principle that controls this issue?
    A: Indeed, it is impermissible to perform emulation in such issues, for what is required is to believe in them and be sure and certain about them; however, he who wishes to express his opinion ought to be qualified to do that and well-versed in the Islamic texts represented by the Holy Book and the Sunnah, which help in forming the right image of the pillars on which religion was based… It must be noted that in certain matters, one ought to refer to the experts, just as one does when the issue is difficult and controversial, especially if the issues in question were related to unification and the traits of Allah, the Most High, the Most Exalted… The controlling principle is that man ought to be able to reach full conviction based on evidences and proofs and not on desires and fanaticisms. 
    Running the Universe
    Q: Can the Imam run the universe?
    A: The Imam can run the affairs of the people, if the people choose to help him in the process, for this could not be done by coercion; but rather, it takes place with the people’s consent… The Imam has nothing to do with the Universe; thus, it is meaningless to ask if the Imam can run it or not… The affairs of the universe are up to Allah, the Most Exalted, and to Him only
    What is infallibility?
    Q: What is the definition of infallibility? Are the infallibles born infallible?
    A: Infallibility is a grace that Allah privileges His servant with, through which He makes him abstain from committing sins, although he is capable of doing so and without depriving him of the ability to make a choice. Moreover, infallibility extends throughout his entire life.
    The mind and the heart
    Q: Allah says in His Holy Book in Al-Hajj Surah: ”Have they not travelled in the land so that they should have hearts with which to understand? For surely it is not the eyes that are blind, but blind are the hearts which are in the breasts.” What is meant by the heart?
    A: The heart referred to in this Ayah signifies the mind, intellect, core and the like, and it definitely does not signify the vital organ that pumps blood.
    Cheating in exams
    Q: Is it allowed to cheat in school or university exams, for any reason whatsoever?
    A: This is impermissible, and the student ought to work hard and study well so as to reach success
    Congregational supplication
    Q: Every Friday night in the mosque, one of the believers recites Kumayl Supplication before a crowd of believers who follow up with him. Do the traditions of Ahl El-Beit (a.s.) include any indication on the virtue of reciting the supplication in congregation? Which is better: recite the supplication individually or in congregation?
    A: Indeed, this is mentioned in several traditions that urge the believers on gathering to recite the supplication
    At-Tawassul Supplication
    Q: What is your opinion, Your Eminence, in At-Tawassul (Soliciting) Supplication which gives each member of Ahl El-Beit the power of intercession, as mentioned in the following quotation from the supplication: ”We turn towards thee, seek thy intercession and advocacy before Allah; we put before you our open need, O intimate of Allah. Stand by us when Allah sits in judgment over us,” and other similar quotes?
    A: At-Tawassul supplication is not established to be authentic, especially in terms of its content, as it is not acceptable to beseech or solicit anyone other than Allah, even if one is asking for intercession. One ought to invoke Allah by the intercession of the Imams
    Islamic unity
    Q: What is meant by Islamic unity? Could such unity be actually achieved on the ground?
    A: Islamic unity is manifested by the proximity of Muslims of all sects, by cooperating, supporting each other and conducting a dialogue over what they could be in agreement about, in an ambience of cordiality and openness to the other. Actually, this could be achieved, and it is already achieved, over ages, in several countries, and to different extents. Every believer ought to support this state of unity and take part in its process as much as he could; thus, exerting every effort for what brings about cordiality and avoiding saying or doing what could lead to partition. Despite the huge negligence of the governments that could actually play a big role in establishing unity, each of the believers in his house and neighborhood, can participate in what brings about benefit and good to the society.
    The Big Bang and religion
    Q: I would like to know the points of differences and similarities between science and religion on the issue of the Big Bang. Science says: the universe as one entity, and after the Big Bang, stars, planets and the earth were formed. The earth took thousands of years to be in today’s form. However, religion says that Allah, the Most High, the Most Exalted, formed the earth in seven days.
    A: The Holy Quran did not mention accurate scientific details on the process of the formation of earth and the heavens; but rather, it generally mentions that the formation took place in phases, which is approved and not contradicted by science. The Holy Quran might also have included indications on the Big Bang theory, for Allah says: ”Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” The acts of joining together and cloving asunder comply with the Big Bang theory that is still a subject of debate and dispute amongst scientists. Generally, religion is not concerned with natural scientific issues; but rather with putting down recommendations for enhancing the individual and social behavior; thus, there would be no contradiction between science and religion as long as each of them sticks to its own field
    The Quran and science
    Q: What do you say to all those who claim that the Quran goes against science?
    A: This talk is baseless and it is the result of ignorance in the nature and role of the Quran and the nature and role of science. The Quran is a book of guidance, and at the same time it urges people to think and look into the matters thoroughly; two traits that the scientific method is characterized with, so where does such contradiction lie? Indeed, some might try to point out that certain connotations in the Ayats contradict with certain scientific facts, which includes hidden attempts that aim at offending the Quran. On the other hand, there are several important studies that participated in defending the Quran and revoking the claims of its critics, especially in such an issue.
    The formation of Earth
    Q: I am a university student. We are taught that there are many evidences that support the idea that the age of earth is over 4,6 billion years, as proven by several scientific studies. What do you say about that, especially that the Quran mentions that earth was created in six days; whereas, science says that it took millions of years to be formed?
    A: The holy Quran is not a book of science. Perhaps what is meant by the days is the time phases that the process of the earth formation took.
    Determining the fetus’s sex
    Q: Allah says in the Holy Quran: ”He creates what He pleases; He grants to whom He pleases daughters and grants to whom He pleases sons.” Who is responsible for determining the sex of the fetus? Is selecting the sex of the fetus from in-vitro fertilization forbidden?
    A: Choosing the sex through scientific methods is not forbidden, for Allah enabled man of the knowledge and means to do so.
    Marriage: A predestined fate?!
    Q: Is marriage from a specific partner predestined as they say. Could not a person who falls in love with someone and wishes to marry him, actually marry him? Is the partner of every person in this world chosen by Allah?
    A: Marriage and choosing a partner is left for the choice of the human being, and Allah would bless this marriage or direct it according to His Own will
    Plastic surgeries
    Q: Thanks to Allah, I was born beautiful, but I cannot smile. Perhaps, this case is due to weakness in the jaw muscles. Is it permissible for me to perform a plastic surgery as part of a medical treatment?
    A: This is permissible provided that the legal limits during the treatment are taken into consideration, meaning that the operation should be performed by a female doctor, since direct contact will take place or the doctor will have to see certain parts of the woman that a foreigner is forbidden from seeing, unless a female doctor was not available and the operation constitutes a dire need to remove any hardship.
    The woman’s veil
    Q: Is wearing the veil (covering the hair) obligatory on the woman in Islam? I have read in several books that wearing the veil is merely a traditional practice by ancient tribes, and it was transmitted to us in the name of religion and Islam… and I have searched for an explicit proof in the Quran but 
    I found none. What do you say about that?
    A: A woman should wear the veil, not only in the sense of covering the hair, but also the entire body and the feminine beauty features, except the face, palms and the feet. The Quran includes a clear explicit text on the obligation of wearing the veil, which enjoys the consensus of all Muslims, and is considered part of the fundamental rulings in the Islamic Shariah. Allah says: ”And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers, so that you may be successful!” (24:31).
    Forbiddances by the legislator
    Q: What are the acts that were deemed forbidden by the legislator and that were not mentioned in the Quran?
    A: No one can forbid what Allah has not forbidden in His Book, except what was forbidden in the noble Sunnah, which could be understood from the general lines of the Book or specific cases based on general rules.
    How to persuade a child to pray
    Q: How can I persuade a twelve-year old boy to pray? Is it permissible to beat him up or hit him slightly, if he refuses to pray?
    A: You should use a patient, wise and lenient method with him. Accompanying some friends and relatives to the mosque and participating in scout and recreational religious activities might be useful for him.
    Is this true?
    Q: Is it true that the Jinns could possess man and influence him and his life? What is your opinion in the following Ayah: ”Whom the Evil one by his touch Hath driven to madness” on which many base their opinion that a Jinn can possess man?
    A: This is not true, and it has not been proven. The touch of the Evil mentioned in this Ayah does not mean possession by the Jinn; but rather, it signifies the temptations and whisperings of Satan. Thus, Allah would never make Satan possess the human being in the way people believe it to be.
    Al-Bayan sermon
    Q: Is Al-Bayan sermon narrated about Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib (a.s.) authentic?
    A: It is not proven that this sermon could be attributed to the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.); but rather, it is falsified, because it includes certain connotations that could never be attributed to him as they are against the doctrine of unification and contradict with his style of speech.
    Sayyeda Az-Zahraa (a.s.): An ordinary person
    Q: Is it true that Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadlullah says that Fatima Az-Zahraa (a.s.) is an ordinary woman? What does he mean by that?
    A: This is what Allah says about His Prophet ”Say: I am but a [mortal] man like yourselves.” What I meant here is that the Prophet or the Imam is an ordinary man in his humanity and human characteristics. Allah chose from amongst His human servants messengers, and He did not choose any angel or other creatures for this mission. As for the aspect of belief, grace and infallibility in their lives, they are the chosen, selected and preferred individuals whom Allah has bestowed with infallibility and the appropriate qualifications for their missionary position

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    Fatimas dörr Q9 – Fatimah’s rib: what is your true position regarding this matter? A – Any one who claims that I have said that Fatimah’s rib was not broken is a liar! Some people have been talking this nonsense for more than five years.[7] Here, I have this to say to you, to clarify the matter: to start with, I reiterate that I did not say that Fatimah’s rib was not broken, and everyone who claims that I did is a liar. I merely regarded it as unlikely; I raised a question mark on the basis of historical analysis. I said: ‘I do not react positively with this because the Muslims’ love for Fatimah (as) had been greater than their love for Ali, and greater than their love for al-Hasan and al-Husain, and greater than that their love for the Messenger of Allah Õáì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå. I said that it was unlikely that anyone would commit such an act, but conceded that bad intentions were plotted – not to establish the innocence of anyone, but in fear of agitating Islamic public opinion. There were many narrations: some said that they entered the house, while others said they did not. Hence, I said: ‘I see that to be unlikely and I do not react positively to the word itself’. The world roared and heavens fell on earth, and words began to be fabricated and spread in some quarters! This reaction has still not abated in more than one place, and leaflets are being distributed around the world. It is as if the dangers confronting the Muslims and all the injustice that we live in have become nothing, and all that matters is this historical issue! In fact, this is a symptom of the backwardness which is being practised by many in our Islamic arena. This problem still festers among those who do not care about the dangers which confront Islam, and that the problem is still alive means that we are not addressing the major issues on the proper level of awareness. (Book ”Fatimah al-Ma`sumah (as): a role model for men and women” by Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlullah, Chapter 4) http://www.al-islam.org/fatimah-a-role-model-for-men-and-women

    Sayyid Fadhallahs ijazah

    Syed Fadhlallah (HA) – Ijazah of Ijtihaad

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