• Shia historiska sekter – Fatihiya

    En utdöd gren inom shiaislam:

    n a few points in Muslim history, and specifically Shi`a history, there was a problem of succession and recognition of the successor. The earliest Islamic fitna over succession was of course, that of `Ali (as) and the caliph Abu Bakr. Was succession and representation of the Prophet (pbuh) to be a divine matter (Ghadir and Thaqalayn) or a communal matter (the election of Abu Bakr)? And thus, on this issue, Muslims differed in opinion.

    The Shi`a upheld the opinion in divine succession and representation to the Prophet (pbuh), but in some points of history, the declaration of the successor was unclear. One of the most famous points of ikhtilaf in Shi`i history was the succession to the 6th Imam, Ja`far as-Sadiq (as). Although today we have a few ahadith that allude to the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim (as), the issue was apparently unclear to the early Shi`ites, including some of as-Sadiq’s (as) closest followers and supporters.

    The followers went into the following directions:

    1. A large chunk of the Imam’s followers went towards his eldest son, Abdullah ibn Ja’far al-Aftah. This sect was known as the Aftahiyya/Fathiyya/Fathites.

    2. One sect believed that Isma’il ibn Ja’far al-Mubarak was the original heir to the Imamate, but his death presupposed his father’s. The Mubarakiyya sect believed Isma’il went into occultation.

    3. The proto-Isma’ili sect believed that although Isma’il had died, the Imamate went to his son, Muhammed ibn Isma’il. He remained in contact with the Mubarakiyya.

    4. One group believed Ja’far as-Sadiq (as) was al-Qa`im, who had gone into occultation rather than dying. These were the Tawussiyya/Tawussites

    5. The people who believed in the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim (as). This began with prominent students of his father like Hisham ibn Hakam (ra), and then later joined by the bulk of Abdullah’s followers before and after his death.

    I’m writing about the Fat`hiyya. The word Fat`hiyya comes from the Arabic root word Fa Ta `Ha, which means to open. Specifically, the group derives its name from its Imam of difference, Abdillah al-Aftah (‘aftah’ has the same root).

    Abdillah al-Aftah was the eldest son of Ja`far as-Sadiq (as), whose kunya many of us know as Abu `Abdillah. After the death of his father, al-Aftah claimed Imamate to himself, which gained the curiosity and interest of the Shi`a (ra) of Imam as-Sadiq (as). Shaykh al-Mufid’s Kitab al-Irshad outlines the situation:

    The people had agreed that Abd Allah b. Jafar was the leader of the affair (sahib al-amr) after his father. We went to visit him and the people were with him.

    As we see, the bulk of the Shi`a were deceived into thinking Abdillah al-Aftah was the Imam (thus becoming Fat`hiyyat). Hisham ibn Salim (ra) and Muhammed ibn Nu`man, both companions of his father, wanted to test the false Imam by asking him an Islamic question. They asked how many dirhams out of 200 dirhams does zakaat take? al-Aftah answered ”5” (2.5%).

    We went to visit him and the people were with him. We questioned him about how much poor-tax (zakat) had to be paid. ”Five dirhams on two hundred dirhams,” he answered.
    ”How much on a hundred dirhams?” we asked. ”Two and a half dirhams,” he answered. ”By God, you are declaring the doctrine of the Murji’a,” we said. ”By God,” he retorted, ”I do not know the doctrine of the Murji’a.”

    We questioned him about how much poor-tax (zakat) had to be paid. ”Five dirhams on two hundred dirhams,” he answered.
    ”How much on a hundred dirhams?” we asked. ”Two and a half dirhams,” he answered. ”By God, you are declaring the doctrine of the Murji’a,” we said. ”By God,” he retorted, ”I do not know the doctrine of the Murji’a.”

    In the Ja`fari school, one does not pay Zakaat on 100 dirhams, so many of the companions of the Imam knew from right there that al-Aftah was not an Imam.

    Hisham ibn Salim and Muhammed ibn Nu`man then wept, thinking the Imamate had died, and went to wonder which sect they should instead join. Murji’ites, the Qadarites, the Mu`tazilites, and the Zaydites? They then came across a man, who led them to the other son of Ja`far, none other than the 7th Imam Musa al-Kadhim (as).

    We were in this situation when I saw a venerable man whom I did not know. He indicated to me with his hand. I was afraid that he was one of the spies of (the Abbasid caliph) Abu Jafar al-Mansur. There were spies in Medina for him (to find out) who the people agreed on to succeed Jafar. Then that man (i.e. the Imam) would be captured and executed. I was afraid that that man was one of them. ”Go aside,” I said to al-Ahwal, ”I am afraid for myself. You be careful. He only wants me. He does not want you. Leave me, for you will lead (him) to yourself.”

    (Al-Ahwal) went some distance away from me and I went over to the venerable man. That was because I thought that I would not be able to escape from him. As I followed him, I was certain of my own death until he brought me to the door of Abu al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him.

    After convincing the companions that he was the Imam, he told them to make da`wa in secret, call the other Shi`as to his Imamate in secret, otherwise his blood will be spilled. And as we know, the Abbasids later did not spare the blood of Musa al-Kadhim.

    Abdillah al-Aftah died 70 days after his father, and thus, the Fat`hiyya did not last, and was instead split up. A portion of his followers abandoned his Imamate at its beginning (with Hisham), and a portion abandoned it later. Another group claimed that the Imamate went from al-Aftah to al-Kadhim (therefore making him the 8th and not 7th imam). Those that retained al-Aftah’s Imamate further split into two groups, some that said he was the final (7th) Imam, and others that believed he had a secret son, named Muhammed ibn Abdillah, in occultation, who was the Qa`im of Ahl al-Bayt.

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